Dark Day Ministries offers this video as an affirmation of the doctrine that Christ’s kingdom (the 1000 years of Revelation 20) is a spiritual kingdom, in existence now, until His second coming. The teacher examines common contentions held many Premillennialists and Postmillennialists against the Amillennial position.
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aión: a space of time, an age
Original Word: αἰών, ῶνος, ὁ
Usage: an age, a cycle (of time), especially of the present age as contrasted with the future age, and of one of a series of ages stretching to infinity.
Scripture referring to “this age” only
He also that received seed among the thorns is he that hears the word; and the care of this world (aión), and the deceitfulness of riches, choke the word, and he becometh unfruitful.
GRK: μέριμνα τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ
NAS: and the worry of the world and the deceitfulness
KJV: of this world, and
INT: care the age and the
And as he sat upon the mount of Olives, the disciples came unto him privately, saying, Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of thy coming, and of the end of the world (aión)?
GRK: συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος
NAS: and of the end of the age?
KJV: and of the end of the world?
INT: the completion of the age
Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the world (aión). Amen.
GRK: συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος
NAS: even to the end of the age.
KJV: the end of the world. Amen.
INT: completion of the age
And the cares of this world (aión), and the deceitfulness of riches, and the lusts of other things entering in, choke the word, and it becometh unfruitful.
GRK: μέριμναι τοῦ αἰῶνος καὶ ἡ
NAS: but the worries of the world, and the deceitfulness
KJV: of this world, and
INT: cares the of this life and the
And be not conformed to this world (aión): but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, that you may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.
I Corinthians 1:20
Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? Has not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
I Corinthians 2:6-8
Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.
II Corinthians 4:4
In whom the god of this world has blinded the minds of them which believe not, lest the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God, should shine unto them.
Who gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father:
Wherein in time past you walked according to the course of this world (age), according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now works in the children of disobedience:
I Timothy 6:17
Charge them that are rich in this world, that they not be high-minded, nor trust in uncertain riches, but in the living God, who gives us richly all things to enjoy;
Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;
In the preceding verses, “this age” is temporal, describing our current age prior to Christ’s return. All these things seem to pass away upon His return.
Scripture referring to the “age to come” only
I Corinthians 6:9-10
Know you not that the unrighteous shall not inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
I Corinthians 15:50
Now this I say, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; neither does corruption inherit incorruption.
Envyings, murders, drunkenness, revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.
For this you know, that no whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, hath any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God.
I Thessalonians 2:12
That you would walk worthy of God, who has called you unto his kingdom and glory.
II Thessalonians 1:5
Which is a manifest token of the righteous judgment of God, that you may be counted worthy of the kingdom of God, for which you also suffer:
I Timothy 6:19
Laying up in store for themselves a good foundation against the time to come, that they may lay hold on eternal life.
II Timothy 4:18
And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve me unto his heavenly kingdom: to whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen.
In contrast to “this age” the qualities assigned to the age to come are all eternal in nature. These references are clearly describing the future eschatological state of believers (and nonbelievers if you factor in the references to judgment).
Scripture illustrating the transition between both “this age” and “the age to come” (two ages)
And whosoever speaks a word against the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaks against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world (aión), neither in the world (aión) to come.
GRK: τούτῳ τῷ αἰῶνι οὔτε ἐν
NAS: in this age or
KJV: in this world, neither in
INT: this the age nor in
Matthew 13:39-40, 49
The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world (aión); and the reapers are the angels. As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world (aión).
GRK: θερισμὸς συντέλεια αἰῶνός ἐστιν οἱ
NAS: is the end of the age; and the reapers
KJV: the end of the world; and
INT: [the] harvest [the] completion of the age is
GRK: συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος
NAS: so shall it be at the end of the age.
KJV: the end of this world.
INT: completion of the age
Matthew 13:49 – So shall it be at the end of the world (aión): the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just,
GRK: συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐξελεύσονται οἱ
NAS: it will be at the end of the age; the angels
KJV: the end of the world: the angels
INT: completion of the age will go out the
Who shall not receive manifold more in this present time, and in the world (aión) to come life everlasting.
GRK: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ
NAS: time and in the age to come,
KJV: and in the world to come life
INT: in the age that is coming
And Jesus answering said unto them, The children of this world (aión) marry, and are given in marriage: But they which shall be accounted worthy to obtain that world (aión), and the resurrection from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage:
GRK: υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσιν
NAS: of this age marry
KJV: The children of this world marry, and
INT: sons of the age this marry
GRK: καταξιωθέντες τοῦ αἰῶνος ἐκείνου τυχεῖν
NAS: to attain to that age and the resurrection
KJV: that world, and
INT: having been accounted worthy to the age that to obtain
But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life.
GRK: ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ
NAS: along with persecutions; and in the age to come,
KJV: and in the world to come eternal
INT: in the age which is coming
Far above all principality, and power, and might, and dominion, and every name that is named, not only in this world, but also in that which is to come:
Strong’s Concordance 165. BibleHub.com. Retrieved from https://biblehub.com/greek/165.htm
The Two Age Model (chart). The Riddleblog. Retrieved from http://kimriddlebarger.squarespace.com/the-two-age-model-chart/
Amillennialist proponent, Dr. Kim Riddlebarger, conducts his series of talks on end-time eschatology titled, “Amillennialism 101”. Chapters include:
What Is Amillennialism? (1/16)
Defining terms and expanding our eschatological vocabulary.
Interpreting Bible Prophecy (Part One) (2/16)
Unpacking and analyzing our eschatological presuppositions.
Interpreting Bible Prophecy (Part Two) (3/16)
Continuing the discussion on presuppositions and methodology.
Covenant Theology and Eschatology (4/16)
What is reformed covenant theology and why do amillennials hold it as the core of their eschatology?
These Things Were Foretold (Part One) (5/16)
Introducing the Messianic prophesies in the Old Testament.
These Things Were Foretold (Part Two) (6/16)
Old Testament themes that foretold the coming of Christ. How does the New Testament interpret a number of Old Testament prophecies?
The Basic Elements of New Testament Eschatology (7/16)
This talk deals with big picture eschatological issues such as 1) identifying your operating assumptions (presuppositions) and 2) understanding and agreeing on a common hermeneutic framework.
Christ, the True Israel (8/16)
Three basic features of New Testament eschatology: 1) Fulfilled prophecy in the coming Messiah, 2) what was foretold in the Old Testament was revealed as two ages in the New Testament, and 3) the blessings of the first coming of Christ guarantees the second coming of Christ.
Christ, the True Temple (9/16)
Looking at the Old Testament through the revelation of the New Testament.
The Two-Age Model (Part One) (10/16)
Dr. Kim Riddlebarger introduces Two-Age eschatology as the key to understanding New Testament eschatology. Dr. Riddlebarger argues the Two-Age model–if understood correctly–eliminates the possibility of an earth-bound millennium.
The Two-Age Model (Part Two) (11/16)
Covers the Two-Age model, specifically dealing with the implausibility of premillennialism.
Resource: Two-Age scripture list and accompanying chart.
The Two-Age Model and New Testament Parallels (12/16)
Understanding the eschatology of the Old Testament and how it is continued into the New Testament, including New Testament parallels.
The Kingdom of God (Part One) (13/16)
The Old Testament anticipation of the kingdom of God. What does Jesus say about the unfolding kingdom of God?
The Kingdom of God (Part Two) (14/16)
Continues to discuss the present reality of the kingdom of God as a spiritual and non-nationalistic kingdom.
The Age of the Holy Spirit – Deals with Christ’s resurrection and the new creation. (15/16)
Further discussion advancing the Two-Age model which explains references to “this age” equals this temporal reality and “the age to come” indicates the eternal, whereby Jesus’ Second Coming is the demarcation that leads us into the age to come.
The Church as the Israel of God – Replacement Theology? (16/16)
Dr. Riddlebarger discusses the important aspect of Reformed Amillennialism, that being the ideas that the Church is the Israel of God. Understanding this controversial aspect of Reformed Amillennialism is vital because it is this concept that brings considerable criticism from premillennial dispensationalists by their accusation that amillennials reject Israel and replace them with the Church.
[ also termed nunc-millennialism or inaugurated millennialism ]
The amillennialist believes that the Kingdom of God was inaugurated at Christ’s resurrection (hence the term “inaugurated millennialism”) at which point he gained victory over both Satan and the Curse. Christ is even now reigning (hence the term “nunc-millennialism” — nunc means “now”) at the right hand of the Father over His church. After this present age has ended, Christ will return and immediately usher the church into their eternal state after judging the wicked. The term “amillennialism” is actually a misnomer for it implies that Revelation 20:1-6 is ignored; in fact, the amillennialist’s hermeneutic interprets it (and in fact, much of apocalyptic literature) non-literally.
Features and Distinctions:
Favored method of interpretation: redemptive-historical.
Israel and the church: The church is the eschatological fulfillment of Israel.
Kingdom of God: a spiritual reality that all Christians partake in and that is seen presently by faith, but will be grasped by sight at the consummation. [The eschatological fulfillment of God’s covenants with His earthly creation.]
The Rapture: The saints, living and dead, shall meet the Lord in the clouds and immediately proceed to judge the nations with Christ and then follow Him into their eternal state.
The Millennium: inaugurated with Christ’s resurrection. In an “already/not yet” sense, Christ already reigns over all and is already victorious over Satan.
- Higher degrees of interpreting prophecy in light of Christ’s advent, death, resurrection, and glorification.
- Relies heavily on a two-age theology.
[Two-age theology: The branch of theological study focusing particularly upon the already / not yet eschatology presented in Scripture (e.g., the fact that we are already raised up with Christ and seated in the heavenlies (Eph. 2:6), but still await bodily resurrection (1 Cor. 15:50ff); or that we are already glorified (Rom. 8:30), but glorification is the last stage of our salvation and still awaiting consummation).]
Major proponents: Meredith Kline, Richard Gaffin, Robert B. Strimple, Gregory K. Beale, and John Murray.
Eschatology is the study of the eschaton; the eschaton is equated with “last things.” While other views focus on the final days of humankind on earth, amillennialism sees “the last things” as having been initiated at Christ’s resurrection and so, being applicable from the earliest days of the Christian church (cf. Acts 2:16-21; 1 Corinthians 10:11; Hebrews 1:1-2; and 1 Peter 1:20). The amillennialist perspective sees the whole of God’s redemptive revelation as twofold – promise and fulfillment; it also emphasizes that a strict-literal interpretation of Old Testament is not necessarily the most accurate way of determining what the text means.
The amillennial perspective emphasizes that the coming of the Kingdom of God is a two-part event. The first portion dawned at Christ’s first advent (John the Baptist proclaimed at this time, “The kingdom of heaven is at hand” — Matthew 3:2). At the cross, Christ won final victory over death and Satan. And then He ascended to reign upon the throne of David forever (Luke 1:32-33; Acts 2:30-31). Now because we “look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal” (2 Corinthians 4:18) — because of this, the amillennialist sees the final things already accomplished, though not yet seen by sight, but by faith (2 Corinthians 5:7).
An important note is the amillennialist’s view of the church in this world: a role of suffering. The Christian will be hated by all, just as was Christ (Matthew 10:22), for a servant is not greater than his master. Seeing this as the church’s role on earth — to suffer as did Christ — the amillenialist can hold no hope for an earthly exaltation and longs for the fulfillment of the second stage of the coming of the Kingdom.
This second stage of the amillennial perspective is the final consummation of all the heavenly promises. The Christian will no longer see by faith alone, but by sight. All the shadowy things will pass away and our eternal reign with Christ will begin. The amillennialist, expecting no earthly glory for the church, places all his hope on this heavenly glory.
Hoekema, Anthony. The Bible and the Future. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1994. (ISBN: 0802808514)
Hendrikson, William. More Than Conquerors: An Interpretation of the Book of Revelation. Grand Rapids: Baker Books-, 1939. (ISBN: 0801057922)
Beale, G.K. The Book of Revelation: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1999. (ISBN: 0-8028-2174-X)
Strimple, Robert B. “Amillennialism.” Three Views of the Millennium and Beyond. Ed. Darrell L. Bock. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House,1999. (ISBN 0-310-20143-8)
Vos, Geerhardus. The Pauline Eschatology. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1953.
Vos, Geerhardus. Biblical Theology. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1953.
Ridderbos, Herman. The Coming of the Kingdom. Philadelphia: Presbyterian &Reformed Publishing Company, 1962. (ISBN: 0-87552-408-7)
Eschatology :: Four Views on the Millennium. Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved from https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/mill.cfm.
Dr. Thomas Schreiner, professor of New Testament Interpretation at Southern Seminary (sbts.edu) respectfully unpacks postmillennialism, premillennialism and amillennialism. He puts forth several strong arguments for premillennialism and then brings in several competing arguments for amillennialism. (Postmillennialism is somewhat discounted before it gets out of the gate here.)
Understanding Revelation 20 and the Millennial Views: Premillennialism, Postmillennialism and Amillennialism
Does 1,000 years mean 1,000 years? How would the devil be bound? What is the first resurrection? What is the second death? Pastor Bryan Wolfmueller offers a quick look at Revelation 20, the millennium, and the amillennial view of the second coming.
The Reason 1000 is NOT to be Interpreted Literally
Pastor Jim McClarty claims that the number 1000 is used in a figurative way only when its being compared with a smaller number. This is exactly what we have in Revelation 20. Gary shows that the 1000 years is being compared to a short time (20:3). But the real comparison is found earlier in Revelation. The key is found in Rev. 20:4. Can you spot what’s being compared?
The Millenium as the Fulfillment of Israel’s Hope (by Steve Gregg)
Steve Gregg takes a look at the millennium (1000 year reign of Christ), which is very definitive in determining your whole outlook on eschatology.
15 And have hope toward God, which they themselves also allow, that there shall be a resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust.
(A premillennial lens will argue that “a resurrection” could still mean “a resurrection for the just and a separate resurrection for the unjust”, seemingly supported by passages like Revelation 20:4-5, 13. Indeed, the original Greek does not offer indefinite articles like “a” the way the English does. It is more accurate to say people will be raised “by resurrection”, which can be either plural or singular.)
28 Marvel not at this: for the hour is coming, in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice, 29 And shall come forth; they that have done good, unto the resurrection of life; and they that have done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation.
(Again, here premillennialism will argue this could be pointing to two separate resurrections separated by 1,000+ years. Only one hour is referenced however.)
39 And this is the Father’s will which hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me I should lose nothing, but should raise it up again at the last day.
40 And this is the will of him that sent me, that every one which sees the Son, and believes on him, may have everlasting life: and I will raise him up at the last day.
(One resurrection, at the last day. Here our Lord is referring to believers being raised up on the last day.)
No man can come to me, except the Father which has sent me draw him: and I will raise him up at the last day.
Whosoever eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life; and I will raise him up at the last day.
24 Martha saith unto him, I know that he shall rise again in the resurrection at the last day.
(Seems to clearly indicate first-century Jews understood there would be a single resurrection “at the last day”.)
He that rejects me and receives not my words, has one that judges him: the word that I have spoken, the same shall judge him in the last day.
36 Then Jesus sent the multitude away, and went into the house: and his disciples came unto him, saying, Declare unto us the parable of the tares of the field.
37 He answered and said unto them, He that sows the good seed is the Son of man; 38 The field is the world; the good seed are the children of the kingdom; but the tares are the children of the wicked one; 39 The enemy that sowed them is the devil; the harvest is the end of the world; and the reapers are the angels.
40 As therefore the tares are gathered and burned in the fire; so shall it be in the end of this world.
41 The Son of man shall send forth his angels, and they shall gather out of his kingdom all things that offend, and them which do iniquity; 42 And shall cast them into a furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
43 Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. Who hath ears to hear, let him hear.
(Here it sure seems the wheat and the tares are divided during one harvest, not two separate harvests. A time separation of 1,000+ years has to be forced into the text.)
47 Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind: 48 Which, when it was full, they drew to shore, and sat down, and gathered the good into vessels, but cast the bad away.
49 So shall it be at the end of the world: the angels shall come forth, and sever the wicked from among the just, 50 And shall cast them into the furnace of fire: there shall be wailing and gnashing of teeth.
(Again, it seems the good and bad fish are divided during one severing, not two separate events. A time separation of 1,000+ years has to be forced into the text.)
1 Thessalonians 4:13-18
13 But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow not, even as others which have no hope.
14 For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.
15 For this we say unto you by the word of the Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord shall not prevent them which are asleep.
16 For the Lord himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first: 17 Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air: and so shall we ever be with the Lord.
18 Wherefore comfort one another with these words.
And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:
(That’s one judgment; not one partial judgment and then 1,007+ years later a more complete judgment.)
(2 Peter 2:9, 2 Peter 3:7, 10-13 are excluded from this list as they are most likely referring to the incoming day of the Lord judgment that fell upon Israel and Jerusalem between 66-70 AD. Revelation 20 will be dealt with separately, as it requires additional explanation.)